The insolation of Russian regions

The level of insolation in the regions of Russia differs significantly. For a qualitative calculation of a photovoltaic system, it is necessary to use accurate data on the amount of sunlight, taking into account seasonality and climate characteristics, since the efficiency of power plants based on solar panels is most determined by the weather conditions of the area.

Types of insolation

It is important to distinguish between the main types of insolation when designing solar-powered ventilation and heating systems.

  1. Astronomical insolation depends on the rotation of the planet around its own axis and the sun.
  2. Probable insolation is determined by the state of the atmosphere, especially cloudiness. Its duration is about 50% of the astronomical one.
  3. The actual insolation is revealed on the basis of natural observations. This indicator is influenced by a large number of factors, including the architectural features of the building and the location of neighboring buildings.

The variability of the indicator of the actual solar radiation flux is of decisive importance for the calculation of systems on air collectors. The possibility of a significant influence on some of the circumstances that determine its value allows us to say with confidence that it is realistic to achieve the economic feasibility of using solar energy even beyond the Arctic Circle, which is confirmed by the insolation map of Russia.

Solar Energy Resources of Russia

Seasonality and zonality of insolation is determined by the latitude of the area. The considerable length of the territory of the Russian Federation causes a difference in the amount of solar radiation: from 810 kWh per square meter per year for the northern regions to 1400 or more for the southern regions.

The seasonal factor is extremely important for all regions of Russia since their remoteness from the equator is very noticeable. So, for Moscow and Voronezh, the average daily indicator of the amount of sunlight in summer and winter differ by an average of 5-6 times or more, and for Krasnodar – by 3-4 times. Annual fluctuations are relatively insignificant for the Far East, Eastern Siberia and high mountain regions.

Terrain affects the number of hours of sun exposure per day along with geographic latitude, since a nearby mountain range, blocking from the light during sunrise or sunset, can seriously reduce the actual insolation.

In general, the largest amount of solar energy in Russia is concentrated in the territories bordering China, and the smallest – in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. The remaining regions of the state are illuminated by the sun relatively equally, taking into account their latitude.

Table of annual insolation of Russian cities per 1 sq. m of the horizontal area in megawatts

Arkhangelsk0.85
Moscow1.01
Yekaterinburg1.1
Novosibirsk1.14
Omsk1.26
Astrakhan1.38
St. Petersburg0.93
Rostov-on-Don1.29
Makhachkala1.35

The classification of Russian zones according to the level of insolation includes the northern (north of 58° N), central (58° N – 48° N) and southern (south of 48° N) belts. It determines the standard duration of irradiation of premises with a stream of sunlight.

Insolation of Russian regions
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