A basement is a floor of a building, the floor of which is located below the surface of the earth by more than 50% of the height of its walls. The heat-insulating properties of the soil and the absence of solar radiation inside such a room ensure the relative stability of the temperature regime in it, regardless of the season and time of day. Due to the peculiarities of the microclimate, ventilation in the basement is mandatory for the arrangement of an engineering system in order to avoid the appearance of dampness, mold and the development of pathogens.
Table of contents:
Basement Ventilation Standards
The basement, unlike the technical underground, is a full-fledged room, the height of its walls must be at least 2 m in height. Small spaces of this kind can serve for household needs, including as a warehouse. Spacious basements are often used to accommodate:
- small industries;
- underground car parking.
In private houses, cellars can serve as storage facilities for food, wines, and can be used to organize mushroom farms.
General requirements for ventilation of basements are determined by paragraph 3.4.3 of the Rules and Regulations for the technical operation of the housing stock. It states that the premises of this group should be ventilated all year round by equipping them with exhaust ducts and openings in the basement and windows. It is permissible to create specialized devices and install forced air exchange systems.
The air exchange rate must be at least one. In the “Designer’s Handbook” edited by Pavlov N. N. and Schiller Yu.
What causes improper ventilation of basements
Incorrect organization of ventilation of basements in a country house, in a garage or any other building creates serious problems in their operation.
- An unpleasant smell spreads in the premises, and harmful and toxic compounds accumulate.
- The formation of condensate leads to damage to iron, concrete and brick structures; destruction of furniture; breakdowns of equipment and household appliances; the formation of stains and stains on the whitewashing of walls and ceilings.
- Waterlogging of the air contributes to the formation of rust on metal parts and pipes; can cause short circuits and fires in electrical wiring.
- The lack of fresh air and dampness form an environment favorable for the development of colonies of mold fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms (for example, the causative agent of tuberculosis).
Types of specialized basement ventilation
There are two main types of implementation of ventilation of the subfloor or basement of the house:
Basement natural ventilation
The principle of operation of natural ventilation is the practical application of physical laws, namely the use of temperature differences. If you allow warm air to leave the room, and cold air to enter it from the outside, then the renewal of the air mass will occur automatically.
To install ventilation in the basement and organize natural air exchange, it is enough to place supply and exhaust pipes in it, placing them in the corners of the room opposite each other.
- The supply pipe is located 0.2-0.4 m from the basement floor, and its upper end is brought out through the plinth outside the room to a level of at least 0.5 m from the ground and is covered with a mesh to prevent debris, small animals and insects from entering.
- The exhaust pipe is placed directly under the basement ceiling. When using a food storage room, it is recommended to mount it directly above them. The upper end of the pipe is brought out through all existing ceilings, is located 0.3-0.6 m from the roof and is closed with a deflector to prevent water or snow from entering.
Natural ventilation is suitable for organizing the renewal of air masses in a small room up to 50 square meters. m. in cases where there is no additional “load” on it.
The use of the basement for any household needs tightens the requirements for the quality of air exchange.
The diameter of the pipe holes varies from 8 to 15 cm, depending on the area of the room. A simple ventilation system in a semi-underground basement can only consist in equipping vents closed with a mesh.
Natural ventilation is not able to cope with the needs of large rooms, especially those where people work or food is stored. In addition, its effectiveness is directly determined by weather conditions.
Forced basement ventilation
The principle of operation of forced air exchange systems is the use of fans. Proper basement ventilation should be laid at the design and construction stage of the building, its operation can be adjusted depending on the current microclimate indicators.
- Exhaust ventilation in the basement is designed for the forced removal of exhaust and stale air, harmful gases and water vapor.
- The supply ventilation in the basement provides fresh air, usually cleaned of soot and dust using a filter system.
- The supply and exhaust ventilation of the basement produces a complex full-fledged air exchange in the premises.
The use of solar collectors for forced ventilation of the basement and subfloor
Solar-powered equipment allows you to implement autonomous forced ventilation of the basement without the need to connect to an uninterruptible power supply. It takes air from the street, warming up and cleaning it, and then forcibly pumps it into the room. Waste air masses are removed naturally through cracks or vents.
Ventilation in the basement is needed, regardless of whether it was laid down at the design stage of the building. In all cases, the use of solar collectors is the optimal and economical option for drying rooms and maintaining a healthy microclimate.