Building local heating systems

The definition of local heating according to GOST assumes that such systems are considered to be those where all the elements that make up the engineering structure are combined and are an integral device. Its advantage is the ability to set the required temperature in the room, regardless of the others, autonomously. However, maintenance of each installation must be carried out individually.

Local heating is necessary in cases where centralized heating is not available (for private houses, summer cottages) or is not enough. In this case, the use of the following varieties of it is common:

  • furnace;
  • gas;
  • alternative: solar, geothermal and so on;
  • electrical.

Electric heating

Electric heating

Electricity is an expensive resource, so local heating systems based on it are implemented only in the absence of other options or as auxiliary ones. There are many possibilities to organize space heating in this way.

  1. Convectors and radiators are the most popular options for electric local heating. Oil heaters can be very powerful and quickly heat up a room, but their operation requires a lot of electricity, and a heated body often causes household injuries. Convectors have a different principle of operation and, in the absence of other options, can be used as the main heating system.
  2. The underfloor heating system can be used for additional heating. It is mounted under the floor covering, the control is carried out using a thermostat placed on the wall.
  3. Equipment options that operate as sources of infrared radiation are the most economical. Some of them are over 90% efficient. At the same time, the cost of such devices is quite high, and the features of operation are not comfortable for everyone: they heat objects in the room, and not its atmosphere.
  4. Electric water heating involves the use of boilers with heating elements, electrodes or induction and water as a heat carrier. This option is one of the most effective when organizing a building heating system using electricity. Induction boilers are expensive, but they are distinguished by increased safety parameters and are durable. But installing a separate electric water heating in a part or room of a building is not economically feasible.

Gas heating

Gas heating

Natural gas is one of the most inexpensive sources of heat if you have access to it (mains). The design based on it is most often assembled from a gas boiler, the type of which you can choose according to your taste and needs, and a water heating system.
When operating local gas heating, some nuances should be taken into account.

  • Turning off gas heating during the cold season is unacceptable, because when freezing, water can break the walls of pipes. At the same time, it is impossible to leave a working boiler unattended, so this option is not suitable for country houses and cottages where the owners do not live permanently.
  • Strict requirements are imposed on water as a heat carrier in terms of composition and content of salts and impurities.
  • Elements of the heating system need constant maintenance, as they are prone to corrosion and breakage.
  • Water heating does not provide fast heating of the atmosphere of the room immediately after switching on. Radiators must also be regularly freed from dust and dirt, otherwise their efficiency will decrease.

Stove heating

Stove heating

If the gas main is not available, then the most popular type of local heating for houses in rural areas and even apartments remains stove. This is a rational and relatively inexpensive way of heating using various types of fuel: wood or coal.
The stove is a special element of the interior and is relatively inexpensive to build and maintain. She is able to create a unique atmosphere in the house, filling it with warmth and comfort. However, there are also disadvantages in using such a heating device.

  • The Russian stove requires the allocation of a large area for its construction.
  • Heat from stoves spreads unevenly, which can lead to dampness of corners and window sills, discomfort for residents.
  • The efficiency of stove heating is extremely low in comparison with its other types and is only 25%.
  • The combustion process takes time every day, and requires strict and constant control. Warming up a cold room also does not occur immediately.

Combining a furnace with a water circuit can compensate for a number of negative aspects in its operation, but it needs to take into account its characteristic features (prevention of water freezing in pipes and regular maintenance to prevent corrosion and breakdowns).

Organization of autonomous local heating using solar energy

Of the alternative options for organizing local heating of buildings, the use of solar energy is the most affordable. It attracts more and more attention of owners of suburban housing, private houses, since it implies the absence of further costs for paying for resources.

  1. Properly selected solar panels can serve more than 25 years, and the average payback period for continuous operation is about 3 years. There are two main equipment options for such a heating system: solar panels and air collectors.
  2. In solar panels, the light from the sun is directly converted into electricity. This option is most in demand to provide the house with electricity, which can then be spent at the discretion of the owners, including for the operation of the local electric heating system.

Local air heating based on a solar collector does not require the use of additional devices: the sun’s energy is directly converted into heat in it.
The accumulation of electricity for use on cloudy days, when the efficiency of heat generation by the equipment is reduced, is carried out using special batteries. The devices do not require constant monitoring of their work, they can be used in the absence of owners and do not require any permits for installation and commissioning.

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