Organization of cellar ventilation: modern solutions

A cellar is a special structure located below ground level and used for storage (food, tools, equipment, and, in some cases, shells and explosives). It can be presented in the form of a pit made with wall reinforcement and shelter from above, a basement of a residential building, and a separate building (for example, for aging wines and other alcoholic beverages). The main difference between the cellar and the basement is the depth, it can reach 2 meters.

What ventilation should be in the cellar: requirements

Organization of cellar ventilation: modern solutions

To create a microclimate of any cellars, according to the standards, the following conditions must be met:

  • low temperature (2 to 4°C);
  • renewal of air masses in such a way that they are kept fresh and clean;
  • darkening.

The temperature regime in the cellar is subject to fluctuations throughout the year with the change of seasons and sudden changes in the weather. When answering the question of whether ventilation is needed in the cellar, it is important to understand that in its absence, condensation forms on the walls, and humidity increases. In addition, in winter, the air supply becomes insufficient, which can lead to high temperatures and food spoilage.

Insufficient thermal insulation of the cellar, located above the freezing level of the soil, creates the danger of its freezing, and in cases with basements of residential buildings, on the contrary, leads to an increase in temperature. For both options, along with the elimination of the cause, it is necessary to organize a ventilation system and a full circulation of air masses.

Excessive ventilation in the cellar is also unacceptable. It leads to drying and spoilage of vegetables, and in winter it causes freezing of the room.

Options for organizing the ventilation system

Options for organizing the ventilation system

The decision on how to organize proper ventilation in the cellar should be based on the features of its device. The availability of electricity, the presence of combined premises, and the presence of a working heating system in them during cold seasons, the working area, volume, and properties of objects intended for storage are of importance.
The ventilation of the cellar in the garage or in the country, where there is no heating in winter, needs full automation of the processes of fresh air inflow and exhaust air removal. There are many expensive off-the-shelf technology solutions on the market that can handle this task, but they require an uninterrupted power supply.

Natural ventilation

Without investments, only the organization of natural ventilation in the cellar is possible. It works especially well in the cold season when the temperature difference helps to organize the movement of air currents. At the first stage of work, it is necessary to accurately calculate the volume of air and the area of ​​the cellar. Usually, 1 sq. m needs about 26 sq. cm in the cross-section of the duct.

A pipe to remove stagnant air is carried out 1.5 m from the floor along the corner of the room, its upper edge should be located 40-50 cm above the ground. The supply air duct should be placed on the other side half a meter from the floor, however, it is required that it rises 0.8-1 m above the ceilings.

Natural ventilation

To create a cellar ventilation system in a house, it is enough to run air ducts into the basement of a building, but this option will only be accepted for small areas (up to 5 sq. M). In any case, barriers must also be placed on the openings of the pipes, protecting them from the ingress of animals, dust, and debris.

With the onset of cold weather, the products must be insulated, this can be done with a cloth. To avoid the accumulation of condensate, you should sheathe the pipe with mineral wool or pre-select an insulated version of the air duct for installation.

The use of a ventilation deflector makes it possible to protect the exhaust ventilation of the cellar from atmospheric precipitation entering the chimney and to achieve an increase in air exchange.

Forced ventilation

In summer the ventilation of the cellar by natural means is usually insufficient. In this case, it is recommended to use forced systems that increase air circulation. The simplest method is to install a fan on the exhaust pipe in the cellar. By pumping out the exhaust air masses, the device creates the pressure differential necessary to renew the atmosphere of the room.

Thinking about how to arrange forced ventilation in the cellar is also necessary in the case when the humidity level rises uncontrollably and immediate ventilation is required. To intensify the process of replacing exhaust air, you can install fans not only at the outlet but also at the inlet.

The use of adjustable fans allows you to set certain parameters for switching on and off devices (for example, once per hour for 10 minutes). Intelligent equipment has special sensors in its design that independently determine the need to start functioning. Otherwise, it is required to control the equipment manually, constantly monitoring the sufficiency of air exchange in the room.

A simple solution to the question of how to properly ventilate the cellar is to purchase ready-made air conditioners and split systems. These are, as a rule, expensive units, rarely used for the needs of personal subsidiary plots and small cellars.

Autonomous Cellar Ventilation Solutions

For the organization of forced supply and exhaust ventilation in cellars, especially those where significant amounts of food are stored, it is necessary to install modern devices that can provide the necessary temperature and humidity conditions. All of them require considerable costs for the purchase, installation, and payment of electricity.

Turning to technologies for using alternative types of energy, for example, solar, can save a lot and make the cellar ventilation system autonomous and not need to be connected to the power supply network. The collectors update the air masses in the cellar in the proper volume throughout the year in automatic mode according to the settings specified by the user.

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