Humidity in the basement causes many problems for the owner of the house: from an unfavorable microclimate to cracks in the foundation. According to SNIP, the humidity in the basement should not exceed 65-75%. Only then can we talk about a healthy atmosphere, favorable for people and safe for building materials. If dark spots appear on the walls of the basement, condensation accumulates on the floor and walls, and there is a smell of dampness in the air, it is safe to say that you are faced with increased humidity in the basement.
The main reasons for the violation of humidity indicators in the basement:
- Poor foundation waterproofing.
The lack of high-quality waterproofing leads to capillary seepage of ground and melt water through the concrete base of the house. Detecting problems with waterproofing is simple: all basement walls are equally damp, wet spots always form in different places.
- Cracks in the walls.
Sometimes the humidity in the basement rises due to a violation of the integrity of the foundation of the house. Cracks appear in the foundation through which water seeps into the house. In this case, dampness always accumulates in the same places. In some cases, cracks are visible to the naked eye.
- Lack of effective room ventilation.
One of the most common causes of high humidity in the basement. Due to the deep position of the plinth, the absence of slots and air ducts in it, natural ventilation does not provide full air exchange. Carbon dioxide accumulates in the basement, the air stagnates, the humidity rises, and condensation occurs due to temperature changes.
- Leaking systems of engineering communications.
If sewerage, hot and cold water supply pipes are located in the basement, it is recommended to check their integrity before removing moisture in the basement. Often a leaking pipeline causes increased humidity.
Effects of dampness in the basement
Why, when the owner of the house is faced with dampness in the basement, he starts to sound the alarm? What are the consequences of increasing humidity on the basement floors and how dangerous are they?
If the humidity value in the basement rises above that specified in the SNIP, the following occurs:
- Condensation forms on the walls, floor, ceiling.
- Wooden structures, finishes based on paper, chalk, clay begin to absorb excess water from the air, swell, change their structure, after some time decay processes begin, wooden supports lose their strength, turn into dust.
- The thermal insulation material gets wet – the thermal efficiency of the object decreases sharply, the basement begins to freeze and ice in the cold season.
- Favorable conditions are created for the growth of mold and the development of pathogens.
- If agricultural products are stored in the basement, rot and other fruit diseases develop.
- Condensation accumulating on metal surfaces causes their corrosion, penetrating rust can completely destroy a metal structure in less than a year.
- Water destroys the insulation of the wiring and causes a short circuit, fire safety standards are violated, there is always a risk of fire.
- Due to constant dampness, accelerated destruction of the foundation begins, concrete crumbles, loses its strength and ability to withstand high loads, the house begins to sag, walls bend, cracks can “crawl”.
High humidity in the basement leads to a significant reduction in the life of the entire house, creates a microclimate that is dangerous for human health. How to deal with it?
How to remove condensation and moisture in the basement?
To cope with moisture in the basement, you should eliminate the cause of its occurrence. Find and repair cracks in the foundation (if water seeps through them), check the internal and external waterproofing, update engineering communications.
The second step is to drain the basement and install effective ventilation. This will protect against rising humidity in the basement in the future. Various equipment is used that runs on electricity or liquid fuel, for example, IR dryers, heat guns. They quickly cope with the task, but without a good forced ventilation device, the humidity in the cellar will rise again in a day.
Therefore, it is necessary to install supply and exhaust ventilation equipment. Usually, the fight against humidity in the basement is carried out after the completion of construction work, when it is not possible to create a high-quality centralized ventilation system that captures all the premises in the house, including the basement. And to reduce costs and simplify installation work, it is recommended to choose a “local” solution: equipment that works only in the basement.
At the same time, air ventilation systems dry the air and ensure its healthy circulation. They work in a specific room, do not require complex connections. The principle of operation of the devices is as follows: the device takes in fresh outdoor air, filters and heats it, then it is fed into the basement with the help of a fan. Exhaust gases are discharged through a specially provided outlet.
With all the advantages of such ventilation, it has a drawback – it consumes a large amount of electricity. And if the equipment runs on diesel, then the exhaust is harmful to humans and the environment. An environmentally friendly and cheap alternative is the use of solar-powered appliances.
Fighting high humidity in the basement: effective and inexpensive
Air solar collectors are forced ventilation devices and work according to the principle described above. But at the same time they:
- autonomous: do not require connection to the mains,
- environmentally friendly: do not produce harmful emissions,
- economical: in the process of work they do not consume any paid energy resources.
The appliances automatically turn on every time the sun hits the panel and begin to “blow through” the basement, simultaneously draining it. Humidity in the basement is normalized without any additional financial costs on the part of the owner of the house.