Ventilation of vegetable stores and vegetable warehouses

Vegetable stores are special buildings for long-term storage of root crops. And vegetable warehouses are entire agricultural complexes occupying a large territory where products are stored, packaged, sent to regional or local markets. The main task of the vegetable store is to maintain an optimal environment for storing agricultural products. This can be achieved by ventilation of the vegetable store.

Features of storage of agricultural products

Ventilation of vegetable stores and vegetable warehouses

The following factors influence the choice of a ventilation system for a vegetable store:

  • type of stored agricultural products;
  • storage method: in containers or in bulk;
  • vegetable store area;
  • the presence of a heating system;
  • building design and wall materials.

The features of storage of agricultural products are taken into account. Vegetables constantly release heat and moisture. The relative humidity of the air in the storage rises. If the value of this parameter exceeds the permissible norm, the processes of decay are activated. Favorable conditions are created for the development of mold and the life of rodent colonies. The chemical composition of root crops is changing: they lose nutrients and taste characteristics.
Another risk factor is the formation of condensation on the walls. Water, flowing down on the products, leads to dampness and rapid spoilage. The lack of thoughtful ventilation of the vegetable warehouse leads to partial or complete loss of the crop.
The ventilation standards for vegetable stores and vegetable stores are prescribed in GOST 2489-44. According to the standard, the optimal level of humidity for potato storage is 80-90%, for onion storage 65-85%, mixed vegetable storage – 80-95%.
The ventilation system of the vegetable warehouse should solve the following tasks:

  • provide a constant supply of air to ventilate stored vegetables;
  • maintain a favorable temperature regime;
  • maintain the humidity characteristics of the air within 80-95%;
  • help reduce the risk of condensation;
  • remove carbon dioxide and other products of “respiration” of root crops from storage.

Ventilation of vegetable stores and vegetable warehouses: modern systems

To create a favorable microclimate in the vegetable store, a natural and / or forced ventilation system is used. The first involves the flow of air through natural gaps and crevices, ventilation hatches and shafts. The efficiency of the natural ventilation of the vegetable warehouse depends on the temperature in the room and on the street, the pressure difference, and the section of the air ducts. In most cases, this type of ventilation is not able to provide optimal storage conditions for vegetables due to low and uncontrolled air exchange rates.

Ventilation of vegetable stores and vegetable warehouses: modern systems

Forced ventilation is devoid of this drawback. Air is blown into the room by means of fans. Air masses circulate throughout the room, eliminating the risk of condensation and ventilating the container with vegetables. The forced-type vegetable warehouse ventilation system is created using air handling units. Large facilities use complex systems consisting of interconnected elements: temperature and humidity sensors, anti-condensation fans, adjustable dampers, and so on. They effectively control and maintain the microclimate in the vegetable store, but they have their drawbacks:

  1. Consuming a lot of energy.
  2. Dependence on an external energy source.

As a result, the economic costs of maintaining a vegetable store increase, and a power failure leads to crop loss. Partially eliminate these risks allow the ventilation systems of the vegetable store, powered by solar energy.

Solar energy for ventilation of vegetable stores

Solar energy is a free and ubiquitous alternative to traditional energy sources. Solar-powered equipment is autonomous and does not depend on mains voltage or diesel fuel supplies. The use of solar energy reduces the risk of damage to crops due to interruptions in the supply of electricity.
Another advantage is the absence of additional costs for the maintenance of solar-powered equipment. It requires investment only at the time of purchase and installation.
Forced ventilation of the vegetable store, powered by solar energy, maintains an optimal microclimate and ensures the safety of agricultural products. At the same time, the cost of maintaining a vegetable warehouse is reduced, and the risks of damage to vegetables in the event of unforeseen failures in the operation of power systems are minimized. This is a modern environmentally friendly solution that allows you to optimize the process of long-term storage of root crops in both small and large vegetable stores.

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